ASTM Standards are produced by volunteer members belonging to one or more standards-writing committees, each of which covers a subject area such as steel, petroleum, medical devices, consumer products, nanotechnology, additive manufacturing, and many more.
ASTM D4003 Shock Testing Standards
ASTM D4003-98(2019) Standard Test Methods for Programmable Horizontal Impact Test for Shipping Containers and Systems. The horizontal impacts used in these test methods are programmed shock inputs that represent the hazards as they occur in the shipping and handling environments. The environmental hazards may include rail switching impacts, lift truck marshaling impacts, and so forth.
ASTM D5487 Shock Testing Standards
As mentioned above, ASTM D5487 introduces the shock test procedure of using shock machines to replicate the effects of vertical drops. Furthermore, the standard evaluates drops of loaded shipping containers, cylindrical containers, bags, pouches, and sacks.
The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
Shipping containers and interior packaging materials are used to protect their contents from the hazards faced in handling, transportation, and storage. Shock is one of the more troublesome of these hazards. Free-fall drop testing often stresses the test specimen. The product is subject to drops that are not perpendicular to the dropping surface.
ASTM D4728 Vibration Testing Standards
Standard test method for random vibration testing of shipping containers. This test method covers the random vibration testing of filled shipping units. Such tests may be used to assess the performance of a container with its interior packing and means of closure in terms of its ruggedness and the protection that it provides the contents when subjected to random vibration inputs. This test method provides guidance in the development and use of vibration data in the testing of shipping containers. The ASTM D4728 standard test method will allow each component to be analyzed. If the performance of any element is lacking, design modifications can be made. Modifications will help ensure that all the components of the shipping container are performing well during random vibrations. Additionally, ASTM D4728 testing can be performed on any axis or orientation. However, different test levels may be used for other axis or orientations to accurately simulate the field conditions of that container position. ASTM D4728 requires four testing apparatuses.
Vibration Test System- Also known as the shaker, the vibration test system will have a table that can support the entire test specimen (shipping container). The table should also be capable of distributing the vibrations equally across the entire test surface.
Electronic Controls- The controls will generate vibrations. They must be capable of producing the desired power spectral density at the table surface that is supporting the specimen.
Closed Loop-Automatic Equalization- A closed-loop controller is required for this type of testing. This means that the controller automatically generates equalized drive signals. The operator will enter the desired PSD data and the equalized vibrations will achieve the desired PSD which will maintain the closed-loop control.
ASTM D5276 Drop Testing Standards
The ASTM D5276 standard is a protocol for testing the strength and protective ability of packaged products when exposed to a sudden shock resulting from a free-fall impact.
This procedure provides guidance on how to perform free fall or drop test by allowing a company to evaluate the ability of the container to protect its contents during free fall, in a laboratory environment, before sending it to the distribution cycle.
ASTM D999 Transportation Testing Standards
ASTM D 999 Standard test methods for vibration testing of shipping containers. These test methods cover vibration tests of filled shipping containers. Such tests may be used to assess the performance of a container, with its interior packing and means of closure, both in terms of its strength and of the protection it provides its contents when it is subjected to vibration such as it experiences in transportation. These procedures are suitable for testing containers of any form, material, kind, design of interior packing, means of closure, and any size and weight. They are not intended for determining the response of products to vibration for product design purposes, nor are they intended for tests of products in their operational configuration as other more suitable procedures are available for these purposes.
ASTM D880 Incline Impact Testing Standards
ASTM D880-92(2021) Standard Test Method for Impact Testing for Shipping Containers and Systems. This test method covers two procedures for conducting impact tests on loaded containers or shipping units (pallet loads), as follows: 1.1.1 Procedure A, to test the ability of a container or shipping unit to withstand impacts, and 1.1.2 Procedure B, to test the ability of a container or shipping unit or interior packing, or both, to provide protection to the contents when subjected to impacts. These test methods are intended to determine the ability of a package or product to withstand laboratory-simulated horizontal impact forces. ASTM D880 identifies the results of impacts on a shipping container. As an ISTA and ISO 17025 certified lab, we realize the importance of impact testing. Meeting the ASTM D880 requirements can be difficult. We understand the challenges and guide companies through the process. ASTM D880 integrity transportation testing can be applied to a number of containers. These include but are not limited to flexible packages, pouches bags, barrels, boxes, crates, drums, kegs, pails, and sacks. The standard also allows for the testing of pallet loads and palletized units. Heavily loaded units can be tested to this standard.
ASTM D5277 Incline Impact Testing Standards
ASTM D5277-92(2015) Standard Test Method for Performing Programmed Horizontal Impacts Using an Inclined Impact Tester. This test method covers the procedures for reproducing and comparing shock damage, such as that which may result from rail switching or pallet marshaling impacts, using an incline impact tester. It is suitable for simulating the types of shock pulses experienced by lading in rail switching of rail cars with standard draft gear, but not for those with long travel draft gear or cushioned underframes. The test method can also be used for pallet marshaling tests.
ASTM D642 Compression Testing Standards
ASTM D642 Standard Test Method for Determining Compressive Resistance of Shipping Containers, Components, and Unit Loads. A standard testing method to determine the resistance to compression of shipping containers, components, and load units; in other words, to determine the protective ability of the package when faced with compressive forces.
In order to do so, it outlines the methods to perform a compression test with a box compression machine and apply the compression forces on the package diagonally (edge-to-edge) or top-to-bottom, simulating what happens when boxes are stacked. The standard works with different shipping containers, including boxes, buckets, drums, etc.
ASTM D6055 Clamping Force Testing Standards
ASTM D6055 Mechanical Handling of Unitized Loads and Large Shipping Cases and Crates Test Method C: Clamp Handling Test. This method is used for lifting by a hydraulic clamp attachment. This determines the ability of the shipping unit to withstand squeeze clamp handling consisting of repeated side compression and lifting. In performing the clamp handling test, use an actual lift truck with the appropriate load clamping device to lift the shipping unit. Provision shall be made to measure the clamping force between the platens using a load cell(s) or another suitable device.